However, he is still usually considered a "submarine" pitcher. Only the pitcher's and catcher's locations are fixed, and then only at the beginning of each pitch. Thus, the players on the field move around as needed to defend against scoring a run. Many variations of this are possible, as location depends upon the situation. Circumstances such as the number of outs, the count balls and strikes on the batter, the number and speed of runners, the ability of the fielders, the ability of the pitcher, the type of pitch thrown, the tendencies of the hitter, and the inning cause the fielders to move to more strategic locations on the field.
Common defensive strategies include: playing for the bunt, trying to prevent a stolen base , moving to a shallow position to throw out a runner at home, playing at " double play depth", and moving fielders to locations where hitters are most likely to hit the ball. The ultimate goal of the team at bat is to score runs. To accomplish this task, the team at bat successively in a predetermined order called a lineup or batting order sends its nine players to the batter's box adjacent to home plate where they become batters.
Each team sets its batting lineup at the beginning of the game. Changes to the lineup are tightly limited by the rules of baseball and must be communicated to the umpires, who have the substitutions announced for the opposing team and fans. See Substitutions below.
A batter's turn at the plate is called a plate appearance. Batters can advance to first base safely in one of seven methods: a base-hit abbreviated 'H' or walk 'BB' for base-on-balls are by far the most common; being hit-by-the-pitch 'HBP' , reaching by error 'E' or fielder's choice 'FC' are less common; and somewhat rarely a player may reach base by virtue of interference 'I' or a passed ball 'PB' on a strike-out , where the player is allowed to run and reach base safely if he can.
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When the batter hits a fair ball, he must run to first base, and may continue or stop at any base unless he is put out. A successful hit occurs when the batter reaches a base: reaching only first base is a single ; reaching second base, a double ; third base, a triple ; and a hit that allows the batter to touch all bases in order on the same play is a home run —whether the ball is hit over the fence does not matter if the ball is not hit over the fence and the batter touches all bases, it is usually referred to as an "inside-the-park home run".
Once a runner is held to a base, he may attempt to advance at any time, but is not required to do so unless the batter or another runner displaces him called a force play.
A batter always drops his bat when running the bases; otherwise, the bat would slow him down and could give rise to a call of interference if it were to contact the ball or a fielder. However, if a batter hits the ball, and the batter or the dropped bat touches the ball, it is considered a dead ball.
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Depending on the way the ball comes off the bat, the play has different names. A batted ball is called a fly ball if it is hit in the air in an upward arc, such that a fielder might be able to catch it before it hits the ground. A batted ball is called a ground ball if it hits the ground within the infield before it can be caught, often due to being hit in a downward trajectory. Several different names are used to describe fly balls, depending on their trajectory.
A ball hit high in the air and seemingly almost straight up is called a "pop-up". A ball hit forcefully in a fast-moving and seemingly almost straight-line trajectory is called a line drive.
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A "shallow" fly ball, hit with just enough force to possibly land between the infielders and the outfielders, is often call a "blooper". A "deep" fly ball is hit with enough force to approach and possibly clear the outfield fence.
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When a ball is hit outside the foul lines, it is a foul ball , requiring the batter and all runners to return to their respective bases, whether it is caught or not. Additionally, if a ground ball or a bunted ball lands in foul territory and the ball rolls back into bounds before reaching either first or third bases without being touched by either a fielder or a runner, then said ball is considered fair. Once the batter and any existing runners have all stopped at a base or been put out, the ball is returned to the pitcher, and the next batter comes to the plate.
After the opposing team bats in its own order and three more outs are recorded, the first team's batting order will continue again from where it left off. When a runner reaches home plate, he scores a run and is no longer a base runner. He must leave the playing area until his spot in the order comes up again. A runner may only circle the bases once per plate appearance and thus can score no more than a single run.
In the American, Pacific, and both Cuban leagues, there is a tenth player, a designated hitter, who bats for the pitcher.
Each plate appearance consists of a series of pitches, in which the pitcher throws the ball towards home plate while a batter is standing in the batter's box either right or left. With each pitch, the batter must decide whether to swing the bat at the ball in an attempt to hit it.
The pitches arrive quickly, so the decision to swing must be made in less than a tenth of a second, based on whether the ball is hittable and in the strike zone , a region defined by the area directly above home plate and between the hollow beneath the batter's knee and the midpoint between the top of the shoulders and the top of the uniform pants. In addition to swinging at the ball, a batter who wishes to put the ball in play may hold his bat over home plate and attempt to tap a pitch lightly; this is called a bunt. Good bunting technique has been described as "catching the ball with the bat.
On any pitch, if the batter swings at the ball and misses, he is charged with a strike. If the batter does not swing, the home plate umpire judges whether the ball passed through the strike zone. If the ball, or any part of it, passed through the zone, it is ruled a strike; otherwise, it is called a ball. The number of balls and strikes thrown to the current batter is known as the count ; the count is always given balls first except in Japan, where it is reversed , then strikes such as 3—2 or "three and two", also known as a "full count", which would be 3 balls and 2 strikes.
If the batter swings and makes contact with the ball, but does not put it in play in fair territory—a foul ball —he is charged with an additional strike, except when there are already two strikes. Thus, a foul ball with two strikes leaves the count unchanged.
However, a noted exception to this rule is that a ball bunted foul with two strikes is a strikeout. If a pitch is batted foul or fair and a member of the defensive team is able to catch it, before the ball strikes the ground, the batter is declared out. In the event that a bat deflects the ball sharply and directly back toward the catcher's box, it is a foul tip.
If a ball ruled as a foul tip is caught, with two strikes in the count, it is considered a counted third strike and an out; if not initially caught by the catcher, it remains a foul ball with two strikes. When three strikes occur on a batter, it is a strikeout and the batter is automatically out unless the pitch is not caught by the catcher or if the pitch bounces before it is caught. It is then ruled an uncaught third strike , an exception to the third strike rule: If the catcher drops the third strike, the batter is permitted to attempt to advance to first base if there are two outs in the inning or if it is unoccupied.
In this case, the batter is not out although the pitcher is awarded a strikeout. The catcher can try to get the batter out by tagging him with the ball or throwing the ball to first base to put him out. On the fourth ball , it is called a walk, and the batter becomes a runner, and is entitled to advance to first base without risk of being put out, called a base on balls or a walk abbreviated BB.
If a pitch touches the batter or the batter's clothes , the umpire declares a hit by pitch abbreviated HBP and the batter is awarded first base, unless the umpire determines that the ball was in the strike zone when it hit the batter, or that the batter did not attempt to avoid being hit. In practice, neither exception is ever called unless the batter obviously tries to get hit by the pitch; even standing still in the box will virtually always be overlooked, and the batter awarded first.
In addition, if the batter swings at a pitch that hits him, it counts as a strike. Once a batter becomes a runner and reaches first base safely, he is said to be "on" that base until he attempts to advance to the next base, until he is put out, or until the half-inning ends. In order to be safe a runner must beat the ball to the bag. When two or more runners are on the basepaths, the runner farther along is called a lead runner or a preceding runner ; any other runner is called a trailing runner or a following runner.
Runners on second or third base are considered to be in scoring position since ordinary hits, even singles, will often allow them to score. A runner legally touching a base is " safe "—in most situations he may not be put out. Runners may attempt to advance from base to base at any time except when the ball is dead. A runner that must attempt to advance is forced , when all previous bases are occupied and a batted ball that touches the ground is a fair ball.
The runner forced to advance toward the next base is considered "forced out" if a fielder holding the baseball touches the intended base before the baserunner arrives. When a batted ball is hit in the air, i. The common name for this requirement is tagging up. If the runner retouches the origin base at any time after the fly ball is first touched by a fielder, he may attempt to advance to the next base or bases at his own risk. The penalty for failing to retouch if the defensive team notices this is that the advancing runner can be put out on a live appeal in which the defensive team player with the ball touches the base from which that runner departed prematurely.
If a runner tagged up and tries to run to the next base in sequence, they are deemed out if tagged by an infielder at any point before reaching the base or the ball arrives at the base ahead of the runner. However, if the runner is not forced to run to the next base in sequence, they are not deemed out until they are tagged.coperbemasu.ml
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This often leads to a runner being trapped between two or more infielders trying to tag them before reaching any base: a situation known as being "caught in no-man's-land". Only one runner may occupy a base at a time; if two runners are touching a base at once, the trailing runner is in jeopardy and will be out if tagged.
However, if the trail runner reached the base having been forced there, it is the lead runner who will be out when tagged for failing to reach his force base. Either such occurrence is very rare. Thus, after a play, at most three runners may be on the basepaths, one on each base—first, second, and third. When three runners are on base, this is called bases loaded. Baserunners may attempt to advance, or steal a base , while the pitcher is preparing to make a pitch, while he is making a pitch, or while waiting for a return throw from the catcher after a pitch.
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